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Simply Logical English

This is not all that simple of an article, but it walks you through, from start to finish, how we get from English to logic. In particular, it shows how English sentences can be directly translated into formal logic for use with in automated reasoning with theorem provers, logic programs as simple as Prolog, and even into production rule systems.

There is a section in the middle that is a bit technical about the relationship between full logic and more limited systems (e.g., Prolog or production rule systems). You don’t have to appreciate the details, but we include them to avoid the impression of hand-waving

The examples here are trivial. You can find many and more complex examples throughout Automata’s web site.

Consider the sentence, “A cell has a nucleus.”:

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Requirements for Logical Reasoning

Here is a graphic on how various reasoning technologies fit the practical requirements for reasoning discussed below:

This proved surprisingly controversial during correspondence with colleagues from the Vulcan work on SILK and its evolution at http://www.coherentknowledge.com.

The requirements that motivated this were the following: (more…)

Simple problems with the semantic web

The standard for defining ontologies these days is OWL and Protege.  Unfortunately, OWL lacks any notion of exceptions in inheritance or any other notion of defeasibility.

So, although you may want to say that birds fly, you’re ontology will be broken (or become much more complicated) when you realize there are birds that can’t fly, such as penguins or ostriches, or even sick or injured birds.

Practically speaking, you need something like courteous logic or the defeasibility in SILK to handle this (or any 1980s expert system shell or even earlier frame system).  OWL is very hard on mortal man (e.g., mainstream IT) in this regard.

How can I tell OWL that a pronoun is a noun but that pronouns are a closed class of words, unlike nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs (in general).  Well, I’ll have to tell it about open-class nouns versus closed class nouns.  What a pain!

This is why we use Protege primarily as a drafting tool and, for example, SILK, to do reasoning.   Non-defeasible description logic and first-order reasoners are difficult to get along with, in practice (and make sustainable knowledge repositories too difficult – which inhibits adoption, obviously).