Going on 5 years ago, I wrote part 1. Now, finally, it’s time for the rest of the story.
This is not all that simple of an article, but it walks you through, from start to finish, how we get from English to logic. In particular, it shows how English sentences can be directly translated into formal logic for use with in automated reasoning with theorem provers, logic programs as simple as Prolog, and even into production rule systems.
There is a section in the middle that is a bit technical about the relationship between full logic and more limited systems (e.g., Prolog or production rule systems). You don’t have to appreciate the details, but we include them to avoid the impression of hand-waving
The examples here are trivial. You can find many and more complex examples throughout Automata’s web site.
Consider the sentence, “A cell has a nucleus.”:
Deep natural language understanding (NLU) is different than deep learning, as is deep reasoning. Deep learning facilities deep NLP and will facilitate deeper reasoning, but it’s deep NLP for knowledge acquisition and question answering that seems most critical for general AI. If that’s the case, we might call such general AI, “natural intelligence”.
Deep learning on its own delivers only the most shallow reasoning and embarrasses itself due to its lack of “common sense” (or any knowledge at all, for that matter!). DARPA, the Allen Institute, and deep learning experts have come to their senses about the limits of deep learning with regard to general AI.
General artificial intelligence requires all of it: deep natural language understanding, deep learning, and deep reasoning. The deep aspects are critical but no more so than knowledge (including “common sense”). Continue reading “Natural Intelligence”
Here is a graphic on how various reasoning technologies fit the practical requirements for reasoning discussed below:
This proved surprisingly controversial during correspondence with colleagues from the Vulcan work on SILK and its evolution at http://www.coherentknowledge.com.
The requirements that motivated this were the following: Continue reading “Requirements for Logical Reasoning”