When I wrote Are Vitamins Subject to Sales Tax, I was addressing the process of translating knowledge expressed in formal documents, like laws, regulations, and contracts, into logic suitable for inference using the Linguist.
Recently, one of my favorite researchers working in natural language processing and reasoning, Luke Zettlemoyer, is among the authors of Entailment-driven Extracting and Editing for Conversational
Machine Reading. This is a very nice turn towards knowledge extraction and inference that improves on superficial reasoning by textual entailment (RTE).
I recommend this paper, which relates to BERT, which is among my current favorites in deep learning for NL/QA. Here is an image from the paper, FYI:
Deep learning can produce some impressive chatbots, but they are hardly intelligent. In fact, they are precisely ignorant in that they do not think or know anything.
More intelligent dialog with an artificially intelligent agent involves both knowledge and thinking. In this article, we educate an intelligent agent that reasons to answer questions.
Continue reading “Simply Smarter Intelligent Agents”
A decade or so ago, we were debating how to educate Paul Allen’s artificial intelligence in a meeting at Vulcan headquarters in Seattle with researchers from IBM, Cycorp, SRI, and other places.
We were talking about how to “engineer knowledge” from textbooks into formal systems like Cyc or Vulcan’s SILK inference engine (which we were developing at the time). Although some progress had been made in prior years, the onus of acquiring knowledge using SRI’s Aura remained too high and the reasoning capabilities that resulted from Aura, which targeted University of Texas’ Knowledge Machine, were too limited to achieve Paul’s objective of a Digital Aristotle. Unfortunately, this failure ultimately led to the end of Project Halo and the beginning of the Aristo project under Oren Etzioni’s leadership at the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence.
At that meeting, I brought up the idea of simply translating English into logic, as my former product called “Authorete” did. (We renamed it before Haley Systems was acquired by Oracle, prior to the meeting.)
Continue reading ““Only full page color ads can run on the back cover of the New York Times Magazine.””
In preparing for some natural language generation, I came across some work on natural logic and reasoning by textual entailment (RTE) by Richard Bergmair in his PhD at Cambridge:
The work he describes overlaps our approach to robust inference from the deep, variable-precision semantics that result from linguistic analysis and disambiguation using the English Resource Grammar (ERG) and the Linguist™.
Continue reading “Robust Inference and Slacker Semantics”
At the SemTech conference last week, a few companies asked me how to respond to IBM’s Watson given my involvement with rapid knowledge acquisition for deep question answering at Vulcan. My answer varies with whether there is any subject matter focus, but essentially involves extending their approach with deeper knowledge and more emphasis on logical in additional to textual entailment.
Today, in a discussion on the LinkedIn NLP group, there was some interest in finding more technical details about Watson. A year ago, IBM published the most technical details to date about Watson in the IBM Journal of Research and Development. Most of those journal articles are available for free on the web. For convenience, here are my bookmarks to them.