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Posts under ‘Formal Logic’

Is business logic too much for classical logic?

Business logic is not limited to mathematical logic, as in first-order predicate calculus. Business logic commonly requires “aggregation” over sets of things, like summing the value of claims against a property to subtract it from the value of that property in order to determine the equity of the owner of that property. The equity of [...]

Confessions of a production rule vendor (part 2)

Going on 5 years ago, I wrote part 1.  Now, finally, it’s time for the rest of the story.

Simply Logical English

This is not all that simple of an article, but it walks you through, from start to finish, how we get from English to logic. In particular, it shows how English sentences can be directly translated into formal logic for use with in automated reasoning with theorem provers, logic programs as simple as Prolog, and [...]

Natural Intelligence

Deep natural language understanding (NLU) is different than deep learning, as is deep reasoning.  Deep learning facilities deep NLP and will facilitate deeper reasoning, but it’s deep NLP for knowledge acquisition and question answering that seems most critical for general AI.  If that’s the case, we might call such general AI, “natural intelligence”. Deep learning [...]

“Only full page color ads can run on the back cover of the New York Times Magazine.”

A decade or so ago, we were debating how to educate Paul Allen’s artificial intelligence in a meeting at Vulcan headquarters in Seattle with researchers from IBM, Cycorp, SRI,  and other places. We were talking about how to “engineer knowledge” from textbooks into formal systems like Cyc or Vulcan’s SILK inference engine (which we were [...]

“I don’t own a TV set. I would watch it.”

The following excerpt is from Hobbs, Jerry R. “Toward a useful concept of causality for lexical semantics.” Journal of Semantics 22.2 (2005): 181-209.

Are vitamins subject to sales tax in California?

What is the part of speech of “subject” in the sentence: Are vitamins subject to sales tax in California? Related questions might include: Does California subject vitamins to sales tax? Does California sales tax apply to vitamins? Does California tax vitamins? Vitamins is the direct object of the verb in each of these sentences, so, [...]

Dictionary Knowledge Acquisition

The following is motivated by Section 6359 of the California Sales and Use Tax.  It demonstrates how knowledge can be acquired from dictionary definitions: Here, we’ve taken a definition from WordNet and prefixed it with the word followed by a colon and parsed it using the Linguist.

‘believed by many’

A Linguist user recently had a question about part of a sentence that boiled down to something like the following: It is believed by many. The question was whether “many” was an adjective, cardinality, or noun in this sentence.  It’s a reasonable question!

Properly disambiguating a sentence using the Linguist™

Consider the following disambiguation result from a user of Automata’s Linguist™.