Going on 5 years ago, I wrote part 1. Now, finally, it’s time for the rest of the story.
This is not all that simple of an article, but it walks you through, from start to finish, how we get from English to logic. In particular, it shows how English sentences can be directly translated into formal logic for use with in automated reasoning with theorem provers, logic programs as simple as Prolog, and even into production rule systems.
There is a section in the middle that is a bit technical about the relationship between full logic and more limited systems (e.g., Prolog or production rule systems). You don’t have to appreciate the details, but we include them to avoid the impression of hand-waving
The examples here are trivial. You can find many and more complex examples throughout Automata’s web site.
Consider the sentence, “A cell has a nucleus.”:
Here is a graphic on how various reasoning technologies fit the practical requirements for reasoning discussed below:
This proved surprisingly controversial during correspondence with colleagues from the Vulcan work on SILK and its evolution at http://www.coherentknowledge.com.
The requirements that motivated this were the following: Continue reading “Requirements for Logical Reasoning”
I received notice of a Victorian government position offering $106k, as follows, today:
BRMS Developer (WebSphere ILOG JRules)
You will have proven experience as a BRMS Developer within a Java/JEE environment using IBM‘s WebSphere ILOG JRules platform. You will have implementation experience using integration technologies (e.g. Web Services, JMS) and have the ability to liaise with and engage key stakeholders. Ideally you will also have knowledge and/or exposure to IBM‘s WebSphere integration suite (including the MQ Series).
This got a reaction out of me since we’re looking for people (although emphasizing logic, semantics, and English rather than any particular engine). At first, I thought it must be a Java job, but stakeholder engagement indicates this is a full-fledged knowledge engineering position.
$100k for anyone with strong, specific experience seems low. For someone that can understand objectives and translate requirements into operational business logic, it seems lower.
I’m surprised there isn’t more of an Ilog premium, too. JBoss Drools consultants can make more than this.
FICO reported 9% growth in revenues year over year.
- the bulk of revenues and all the growth was in pre-configured Decision Management applications
- FICO score revenues were half as much, w/ B2B growing as B2C (myFICO) waned
- tools revenues were less than half again as much and flat
- optimization (XPress) was up
- Blaze Advisor was down
This is in sharp contrast to the success that Ilog has enjoyed under the IBM umbrella.
Blaze Advisor doesn’t seem to make sense as a stand-alone tool any more. Applications are great, and so are combinations of BI/optimization/rules, but if the BRMS tool will survive independently it needs to find more traction, perhaps outside of Fair Isaac.
The slides for my keynote at RuleFest 2011 are here.
Excellent presentations on complex event processing by Paul Vincent of TIBCO and Mauricio Salatano who showed simple, effective integration of events and rules using Drools. Mauricio’s was a good demo and Paul’s slides are worth perusing once they go on-line. (Some comments from Carlos about Paul’s, Mauricio’s, and my presentations are here, here and here, FYI.)
Christian St. Marie and Hugues Citeau each of Ilog (IBM) on improving RIF support in JRules and the worthy ONTORULE project, respectively. Both presentations confirm the gulf between production rules and sufficient logical expressiveness to support natural language or natural logic knowledge management, but IBM is clearly aware of and trying to address the challenges raised in my presentation.
I was just asked for some background on business rules and the major players, preferably in the form of videos. The request came in by email, so I didn’t have the opportunity to immediately ask “why”. Below I give some specific and direct responses, but first a few thoughts about clarifying objectives.
I don’t know of any video that is particularly good from an executive overview standpoint concerning “business rules” or even “decision management” let alone “management of active knowledge”. My recommendation is to clarify the objective before drilling into “business rules”, which is a technical perspective. What is it that you are trying to accomplish? Most abstractly, it could be to manage and improve performance of an activity or an organization. That kind of answer or focus is the right place to start and then work backwards to the technical approach rather than start with an inadequately conceived technical need. This is one of the major problems with business rules as an independent market or product line.
Learning from Enterprise Decision Management
While at Fair Isaac, James Taylor saw this clearly. He articulated the enterprise decision management (EDM) and positioned the business rules capability Fair Isaac acquired with Blaze Software in that space. That is, more as a strategic objective than as a tool or technology. This is an example of the proper way to think about business rules.
The decision management perspective was also narrowly focused on point decision making (e.g., using rules) but James and others (e.g., John Lucker of Deloitte) have appropriately expanded the strategy of decision management to include analytics, which produce and inform decision making (i.e., business rules), into a continuous process not of point decision making, but more closed-loop, continuous process improvement. Over recent years, this has evolved into the broader market of performance management, which also includes performance optimization.
The key thing to consider when considering inquiries about “the applications and market for business rules” is the applications of knowledge. The “knowledge engineering” community is often too focused on the sources of knowledge. Focusing on sources rather than opportunities and benefits is a big part of why the business rules market has been subsumed into the business process management market, which is small in comparison to the business intelligence market, the fastest growing segment of which is performance management.
Semantic enterprise performance optimization checklist:
Here’s a checklist to consider when framing your considerations of strategies and tactics that might involve business rules technology:
- What knowledge (including policies, regulations, objectives, goals) is involved?
- What knowledge is superficial (i.e., derived from or approximations of) versus deeper knowledge?
- Will you capture the motivation for a decision rather than how that decision is made using rules?
- How will the performance of your decision management or governance system be evaluated?
- Is the knowledge involved in evaluating such performance part of the knowledge that you will capture and management?
- How does the manner of evaluation relate to goals and objectives and over what time frames?
- Is the knowledge about goals and objectives time frames part of the knowledge to be managed?
- Are your decisions rigidly governed in every aspect or do you need the business process to include experimentation and optimization?
Most business rules efforts are focused on contexts so narrow that they are reduced to technical buying criteria without much or any consideration of the above. That is, most business rule efforts do not even cover point 1 above. Few reach bullet 2 and only strategic thinkers get to the third.
Specific recommendations for the naive question:
So I went off looking for videos… You can find some on technical matters involving IBM/Ilog but I didn’t find any good videos from IBM at the business strategy level which concerned knowledge-based process/decision management/governance, which surprised.
A video from the vendors of Visual Rules touches on many of the traditional buying points that IT people typically formulate before evaluating vendors (here).
Although it did not respond to the inquiry, I sent along this video of James’ since it touches on so many of the aspects beyond business rules that are increasingly in vogue, even if it does not go far enough towards things like the business motivation model and the market for performance management, imo.
And for a very thorough background in the form of an analyst presentation that is consistent with all of the above, John Rymer of Forrester is most thorough in the two longer presentations that are here and there.
Please send me any other content that you would recommend!
If you are considering the use of any of the following business rules management systems (BRMS):
- IBM Ilog JRules
- Red Hat JBoss Rules
- Fair Isaac Blaze Advisor
- Oracle Policy Automation (i.e., Haley in Siebel, PeopleSoft, etc.)
- Oracle Business Rules (i.e., a derivative of JESS in Fusion)
you can learn a lot by carefully examining this video on decisions using scoring in Ilog. (The video is also worth considering with respect to Corticon since it authors and renders conditions, actions, and if-then rules within a table format.)
This article is a detailed walk through that stands completely independently of the video (I recommend skipping the first 50 seconds and watching for 3 minutes or so). You will find detailed commentary and insights here, sometimes fairly critical but in places complimentary. JRules is a mature and successful product. (This is not to say to a CIO that it is an appropriate or low risk alternative, however. I would hold on that assessment pending an understanding of strategy.)
The video starts by creating a decision table using this dialog:
Note that the decision reached by the resulting table is labeled but not defined, nor is the information needed to consult the table specified. As it turns out, this table will take an action rather than make a decision. As we will see it will “set the score of result to a number”. As we will also see, it references an application. Given an application, it follows references to related concepts, such as borrowers (which it errantly considers synonomous with applicants), concerning which it further pursues employment information.
I can hardly believe posts like this one in Charlotte requiring 6 years or more of IT. Two weeks ago I talked with a recruiter looking for consulting-to-hire people with significant Ilog experience at under $100 / hr in the DC area. Is this what happens when you cross the chasm? I guess it never hurts to ask!
On the heels of IBM’s acquisition of Lombardi comes Progress Software’s acquisition of Savvion. The salient similarities are that IBM is adding BPM applications to its middleware stack as is Progress, at least with regard to its enterprise service bus offerings. More interesting is the relationship between Progress’ complex event processing software and Savvion’s BPM. Also of note is the vendor-provided integration of JBOSS Rules within Savvion versus the unrealized potential of IBM’s Ilog with respect to Lombardi.
We’ve written several times about the artificial distinction between CEP and BPM, their inevitable convergence, and the immature integration of business rules with business process management and event processing that inhibits knowledge-driven governance and decisioning. Continue reading “Rule and event-driven business process M&A”